Fruits & Vegetable Seed in India is being viewed as a high growth Industry. Most seeds normally remain viable for 2 or 3 years if stored under good conditions. Therefore, buy only from seed firm of known integrity. High yielding, high price seeds should have 90% germination. For germination of seeds adequate moisture, temperature and aeration are essential. The requirement of temperature for various fruits and vegetable seeds varies markedly. Some seeds do not germinate at low temperature while some others at high. Usually germination is optimum in between 400 F and 600 F. Seeds absorb moisture and swell and vital activities starts. Respiration begins and energy is supplied and this requires oxygen. Aeration is essential to supply oxygen. If supply of water is more or over wet aeration is poor and may hinder in germination. The first eliminates organisms present on the surface of seeds. Calcium hypochlorite, mercuric chloride and bromide water may be used.
The second disinfectant eliminates organisms present within the seeds. For this hot water, formaldehyde and mercuric chloride are effective. In hot water treatment dry seeds are immersed in hot water 45 to 550 C for 10 to 15 minutes. The third treatment protectants are fungicides to protect seeds from soil fungi. Nursery soil should be drenched before sowing of seeds.
The vegetable seeds should be sown in nursery beds in lines at 1.5-2 cm. below surface soiled at a distance of 5-6 cm. The distance from line to line should be 10-15 cm. After sowing cover the seeds with sieved compost very lightly. The beds should be watered with a sprinkler. The above distance from plant to plant or row to row may be changed according to size of seeds, kind of vegetables and type of seedlings. Similarly the depth of covering with compost varies with the kind of seed. Very fine seeds may be dusted over the nursery bed. Covering of other seeds may be one to two times their minimum diameter. Over watering creates high humidity and poor aeration and contributes to “damping off” disease.
The major seeds which are grown in India are Beet Seeds, Cabbage Seeds, Cauliflower seeds, Fruit Seeds, Onion seeds, Pea Seeds, Pomegranate seeds, Radish Seeds, Tamarind Seeds and Other Seeds etc.
Areas of Cultivation :
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh , Tamil Nadu , West Bengal, Uttar Pardesh , Orissa have emerged as major areas of cultivation .
India Facts and Figures:
The country has exported 14,796.11 MT of Fruits and Vegetables Seeds to the world for the worth of Rs. 723.43 crores/101.50 USD Millions during the year 2019-20.
Major Export Destinations (2019-20): Netherland, U S A, Bangladesh Pr, Thailand, Pakistan Ir were major importing countries of Indian seeds during the same period.
|India is the second largest onion growing country in the world. Indian onions are famous for their pungency and are available round the year. Indian onions has two crop cycles, first harvesting starts in November to January and the second harvesting from January to May.|
|The major varieties found in India are Agrifound Dark Red, Agrifound Light Red, NHRDF Red, Agrifound White, Agrifound Rose and AgrifoundRed ,PusaRatnar, Pusa Red, Pusa White Round. There are certain varieties in yellow onion which are suitable for export in European countries Tana F1, Arad-H, Suprex, Granex 55, HA 60 and Granex 429.|
|Areas of Cultivation :|
|The Major Onion producing states area Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Telangana. Maharashtra ranks first in Onion production with a share of 28.32%.|
|India Facts and Figures :|
|There is a lot of demand of Indian Onion in the world, the country has exported 11,49,896.85 MT of fresh onion to the world for the worth of Rs. 2,320.70 crores/ 324.20 USD Millions during the year 2019-20.|
|Modern packhouses for sorting, grading and packing of the quality onions are available at production zones. Guidelines has been framed to determine the compliance with maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the identified pesticides .Grade designation and quality development parameters has been set up.|
|Major Export Destinations (2019-20) :BangladeshPr, Malaysia, U Arab Emts, Sri Lanka Dsr, Nepal.|